Journal Articles and Essays

In Search of the Black Women's History Archive

Modern American History


Questions of evidence have sat at the center of black women’s history since the field entered the academy over thirty years ago. Historians of black women’s lives and labors have filled book-shelves by “mining the forgotten” to render them visible.1 Scholarship pioneered in the 1980s and 1990s established black women as prominent and indispensable historical actors, and key to understanding such eras as slavery, the Civil War, and the Civil Rights movement.

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Mothers of Pan-Africanism: Audley Moore and Dara Abubakari

Women, Gender, and Families of Color

On March 8, 1980, the African People’s Party, the Republic of New Africa, the Women’s Committee against Genocide, and the May 19th Communist Organization held a celebration for International Women’s Day at the Columbia Teacher’s College in New York City. The event honored Audley Moore and Dara Abubakari as “long time activists in the black liberation struggle.” Participants hailed the two women as mothers of the movement and praised their lifelong commitment to Pan-African liberation.


Renegotiating the 'African Woman

Black Diaspora Review

This article explores cultural nationalist women’s gendered theorizing in the Us Organization and the Congress of African People (CAP) during the height of the Black Power Movement. Both the Us Organization and CAP practiced Maulana Karenga’s doctrine of Kawaida, an ideology that originally prescribed marginal roles for African American women. Kawaida’s patriarchal reputation has caused historians to overlook women’s roles in reshaping gender constructs as members of these organizations.

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Muriel Snowden, Freedom House, and the Freedom House, Roxbury MA

The Black Scholar

This essay explores the transition from civil rights protest to black power protest in Boston through the example of Muriel Snowden, and her organization, the Freedom House.


Reframing African American Women's Grassroots Organizing

Journal of African American History

Audley Moore created the UAEW in 1957 to mobilize southern black women against racism and sexism in New Orleans, Louisiana. From the outset, the organization abjured masculine leadership, preferring to take on Jim Crow as a small group of middle-aged female activists. During he UAEW's short but impactful existence, the women successfully exonerated African American men wrongly accused of rape, fought for the welfare rights of African American women, and built the foundation of the modern reparations movement.